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Need 250 word response and 1 cited reference #1 (544)

Measuring the success of a CPTED project is difficult as success could be defined in many different ways. I would suggest that given the primary reason for CPTED is to mitigate crime and inappropriate use of space, then the measure of success would be the level to which the project would be able to mitigate those factors. ‌A successful project would need to improve safety for the local community, while also reducing crime rates for the local community. This could be measured through analyzing crime statistics and if the crime rates begin to drop then the implementation team can consider the project to be working, excluding any extraneous variables, however, if crime rates increase then it should be considered that the implementation project has been a failure. Furthermore, surveys could be conducted in the local community to get their understanding of the safety in their community; especially relevant given that they are the primary beneficiaries of the project. These are both supported as category three and four measurement tools (Atlas, 2013).

The concept or foreseeability is the legal precedence of knowing a crime type exists but failing to include this concept into design planning or implementation may result in be liable for negligence. The main reason that a case for negligence may be established would be by creating a false sense of security for the local community. This would be through the publicization of a new CPTED project that would help to reduce crime in the area, which may develop a culture of a false sense of security. If the project failed to address key areas of concern, then the community will begin to operate under the pretense that the crime is being mitigated, when the particular crime would be just as prevalent, ultimately degrading safety and security instead of building it.

Ensuring that crime analyses are undertaken throughout the design phase, before change is too late, is important to ensure the avoidance of liability for negligence. Another element of mitigation for this is ensuring that local subject matter experts and key figures within the community are being consulted as part of the development process. For example, leaders of religious or minority groups, community leaders, local urban planners, and local law enforcement personnel would be a good starting point. This would be the epitome of the ‘whole community approach’ promoted and adopted by FEMA, whereby the whole community is represented in the project (FEMA, 2011). Not only does this ensure an increased likelihood of success in the project, but also that the project can be molded around the needs of the community from the outset and may mitigate the potential for liability over negligence further down the line. Once the project is complete, it is too late to include the community as there is little that can be changed without large amount of additional funding.


Atlas, R. I. (2013). 21st century security and CPTED : designing for critical infrastructure protection and crime prevention (p. 844). Boca Raton, Fl: Crc Press.

FEMA. (2011). A Whole Community Approach to Emergency Management: Principles, Themes, and Pathways for Action. Retrieved from…

Need 250 word response and 1 cited reference #2 (544)

My CPTED project focused on a resort parking lot where 26 crimes were reported to the police over a six-month period based on research I conducted using

After evaluating the current security countermeasures of the self-parking lot through risk analysis, I proposed implementing new countermeasures and updating existing ones, including landscaping, lighting, perimeter control, and surveillance cameras, to enhance the overall security of the parking lot. In order to measure the success of the implementations, additional crime mapping assessments should be conducted as new and existing countermeasures are implemented and updated, respectively, to ensure crime in the parking lot is reduced. Once all phases of the update are completed, crime mapping assessments should be conducted every three to six months to ensure effectiveness and identify new threats and vulnerabilities that may exist so that countermeasures can be implemented or updated accordingly.

Atlas provides a list of common errors in the design and operation of parking facilities that includes having unattended parking attendant booths or otherwise patrolling and numerous hiding spaces, lacking electronic security measures for access control and surveillance, and the same protocols are in place regardless of the time of day and staffing patterns. Taking these errors into account along with the findings of the risk analyses, appropriate and sufficient countermeasures are implemented. To ensure compliance and proper operation, Schneider suggests a physical environmental safety audit, which is “a system­atic analysis of a physical environment (lighting, building design, landscaping, signage, garbage, current security measures, etc.) that is conducted to identify physical environ­ment design features that may help create the opportunity for a crime to occur in a particular time and place” (2015, p. 395). Some of the guidelines provided by Schneider for conducting physical environmental safety audits are the same utilized during the risk analysis process such identifying visible signs of crime and types of problems, assessing the area for vandalism and graffiti, determining if the area is well maintained with repairs made quickly, identifying design flaws that inhibit crime, and developing changes that can be made to make the area safer and less vulnerable to crime.

According to Atlas (2008, p. 415), “Parking facilities are the most common location for an incident to occur for all business categories combined, especially for sexual assault and assault and battery.” With the resort’s proximity to a shopping mall and entertainment venue, it is highly unlikely that the crime will stop everywhere unless the same or similar countermeasures are implemented in all parking lots. If the new and updated countermeasures prove successful, the same design can be used as a model to implement those countermeasures in all of the resort’s parking lots. Even if the resort provides a valet only option or built a garage for parking, the same issue of vehicle break-ins theft will continue to exist without adequate and effective countermeasures in place to deter or prevent them.


Atlas, R. (2008). 21st Century Security and CPTED. New York: Auerbach Publications,…

Schneider, S. (2015). Crime Prevention. New York: Routledge, https://doiorg.

Need 250 word response and 1 cited reference #3 (529)

1) What new or innovative types of terrorist attacks or approached do you expect to see surprise the United Stated in the next 5 years?

Terrorism will continue to evolve in order to survive. As we focus on the near pear advisory terror groups will use the lack of focused attention to regroup and reorganize. There is no doubt that al-Qaeda, ISIS, and their affiliates will leverage technological advancements as they seek new ways to attack and instill fear. Though I do not believe any sort of innovation will come as a surprise as these groups have shown that they are capable of evolution time and time again. I do expect to see them apply several private sector advancements to employ their craft: from encrypted communications to share information and plot attacks to mapping and drone technology as and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance capability and as a remotely operated weapon. I expect them to use some of the latest trends against us such as the apps used to map running routes as potential targets as runners are usually distracted by music or podcast in their headphones. These routes can also be used to attack military encampments in foreign nations as they give adversaries visibility of foot traffic in time measurable increments they can use to exploit high traffic areas at the most opportune time with a mass causality attack. Couple this with the rapidly improving unmanned aerial vehicle market and we have a recipe for disaster. I have no doubt that these drones will be used to carry out an attack on personal or infrastructure in the future. Think of the calamity that could be caused if several of these unmanned vehicles were flown into a high foot traffic area with even small amounts of ordinance outfitted with a shrapnel producing element. With the creativity and planning terror groups have shown commitment to, utilizing off the shelf drones to carry out a terror attack will serve to instill fear, create chaos, and garner media attention without having to defeat most security postures currently in place. I expect to see the use of these drones in a coordinated attack in the future.

2) What is the National Strategy for Counterterrorism (2018) lacking when it comes to future terrorist threats? What aspects should be adjusted or added to make the NSCT future focused?

The National Strategy for Counterterrorism (2018) does a great job of combating terrorism through direct action and targeting their financial resources and ability to arm. When reading through the lines of effort there is however, no mention of combating the environments that lead to terrorist groups emerging. While I do agree that stopping the communication that leads to radicalization and recruitment are key, the hopelessness and disenfranchisement that makes one susceptible to radicalization is worthy of addressing. We can screen every container of cargo entering our nation, monitor communications until we know more information than we would like but if the root causes of what draws a person to become a tool of a radical terrorist organization are not addressed the self-fueling machine will continue to move forward. The NSCT should be adjusted to include the addition of a strategy to kill the root cause of terror.


Bacon, T. (2017). Why al-Qaida is still strong 16 years after 9/11. American University School of Public Affairs.

Jones, S. (2018). America’s Counterterrorism Gamble. Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Sales, N. (2019). After the Caliphate: A New Global Approach To Defeating ISIS. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution.

Trump, D. (2018). This National Strategy for Counterterrorism.

Need 250 word response and 1 cited reference #4 (529)

I would like to start of with saying congratulations to everyone else in this course. It has been a fun and informative eight weeks. As stated, before in many of my prior forum’s terrorism is always evolving. One key thing to note that is changing a lot is how terrorists are changing the way that they attack. Types of attacks I believe that we could possible see in the future are Chemical attacks, Biological attacks, Radiological Attack, and Cyberattack. Now technology is something that makes our world turn and our lives so much easier. But it also makes use rely on it took much and turns us into a soft target for a Cyberattack. Now this term can be defined as the following. “A cyberattack is a malicious and deliberate attempt by an individual or organization to breach the information system of another individual or organization. Usually, the attacker seeks some type of benefit from disrupting the victim’s network” (2020). Now I think that terrorist will conduct a major cyber-attack on our infrastructure. To be honest I do not believe they will go after something obvious like our military our major banks which are highly protected. I think they will go after your everyday government employee in order to collect information or find a way to blackmail them.

Chemical attack is something that is scary because how easy it is to make a chemical bomb. Chemical attacks can be made from your typical household cleaning products such as chlorine. ISIS has already conducted chemical attacks within the borders of Syria so what says that they won’t do it again. “Rescue workers in Syria reported finding at least 42 people dead in their homes from apparent suffocation, and antigovernment activists circulated videos of lifeless men, women and children sprawled out on floors and in stairwells, many with white foam coming from their mouths and nostrils” (Hubbard, 2018). I don’t believe that this chemical attack will be done on US soil on citizens. I believe that this type attack will happen on the battlefield against troops. Now Biological Attacks can be dated back to 1500–1200 BC by the Romans. Now this term can be defined as the following “is the intentional release of a pathogen (disease causing agent) or biotoxin (poisonous substance produced by a living organism) against humans, plants, or animals. An attack against people could be used to cause illness, death, fear, societal disruption, and economic damage. Now one of the best ways this is know is by WMD or Weapon of Mass Destruction. Now I believe the form of an attack will be Anthrax against our political figures. Radiological Attack or aka dirty bombs is something which has always been a concern for the United States since the Cold War with Russia. Now I do not believe that ISIS capability to do this. My main concern for this type of attack comes from either Iran or North Korea to be used against the US or our allies.

The National Strategy for Counterterrorism (2018) was launched by the President Donald Trump the goal of this strategy does the following. “overarching goal of the strategy is to defeat the terrorists who threaten America’s safety, prevent future attacks, and protect our national interests. In describing the need for this strategy, National Security Advisor John Bolton stated that the terrorist landscape is more fluid and complex than ever and that the strategy will not focus on a single organization but will counter all terrorists with the ability and intent to harm the United States, its citizens and our interests” (Stigall, 2019). Now I think overall this plan greatly improved on a lot of issues that prior strategies failed to do. I think one thing that needs to be added is end state. One of the biggest issues with our conflicts in both Iraq and Afghanistan is that fact we are still there. We need to have an end point which we exit theses counties. Another thing I think that this need to state is how other countries will take responsibility for terrorism within there country. We act as the big brother for the world to my much.

Works Cited

Biological Attack Fact Sheet. (2019, March 13). Retrieved March 23, 2020, from…

Cyber Attack – What Are Common Cyberthreats? (2020, January 16). Retrieved March 22, 2020, from

Hubbard, B. (2018, April 8). Dozens Suffocate in Syria as Government Is Accused of Chemical Attack. Retrieved March 23, 2020, from

Stigall, D. E., Miller, C., & Donnatucci, L. (2019). The 2018 U.S. National Strategy for Counterterrorism: A Synoptic Overview. SSRN Electronic Journal. doi: 10.2139/ssrn.3466967

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