1. Answer only ONE question from the following 3 questions.

2. It is an Explanatory / Expository essay, not a research paper. Therefore, there is no need for external sources, references, and citations. (See the next pages for more information.)

3. Your answer must be in a short essay form, about 1000 words. Please do not exceed 1200 words.

4. Be explicit and explain the concept clearly.

5. Avoid general/irrelevant statements. Avoid flabby sentences. Do not employ general expressions such as “the discovery of atomic particles had a profound influence on our understanding of nature”.

6. The thesis statement should be clear and explicit. The paper must be consistent with it. (Clarify your argument: What do you want to say in this paper? What question you want to answer? etc.)

7. Your argument and the sequence of concepts/facts/conclusions should support the thesis statement. Try to keep a logical track in your explanations: Start with a short but clear reference to the background of the topic, then explain the topic as clear as you can, and finally, specify its importance/influence.

8. Do not use long or back-to-back quotations.

9. Type the essay in 12pt of Times New Roman, single space. Your essay MUST be only two pages. (It is ideal to print double-sided, otherwise staple the pages.)

10. Put your name and course information on upper right corner of the first page.

Topics: 1. We discussed two ideas about the differences between science and technology: one by Skolimowski (in his classical article: “The Structure of Thinking in Technology”) and the other by Mario Bunge (in Maarten Franssen’s article “Philosophy of Technology”).  Explain Mario Bunge’s philosophy of the relationship between science and technology.  Explain the main arguments of Skolimowski and Bunge when they try to find the relationship between science and technology.  How does Skolimowski connect the concept of “better” to Praxiology (or Praxeology)?

2. In the article “The Reign of the Farmer,” McClellan and Dorn explain that: “after a few thousand years of the Neolithic in the Near East, mixed economies that combined the technologies of horticulture and animal husbandry made their appearance.”  Explain in detail why this mixed economy was so vital in food production, appearance of new technologies and the emergence of civilizations.  What were the social, technological, scientific and cultural results of this economy?

3. Read Lindberg’s chapter “Science before the Greeks”(…) and explain in detail the characteristic features of the pre-historic oral culture. Concentrate on the pre-historic explanation of natural phenomena, the universe, origin of the world, and the practice of medicine.

MORE detail in DIscussion Paper 1.pdf


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