Cockpit design impact to improve human performance and flight safety

add 4-5 more pages to this paper that has already been started and add a conculion ( make sure is it apa format)

According to International Air Transport Association (IATA), in
2016, an estimated 3.8 billion people traveled via air. By 2035, at least 7.6
billion people will travel by air every year, and with this figure growing at
that rate, air safety cannot be underestimated. Consequently, in the near
future, airplanes will use the best technology to ensure that pilots operate
most effectively and efficiently. Some of the most significant advancements
that have helped improve the safety of people include cockpit automation and
use of touchscreens to control the plane.

Modern aircraft have increased their reliance on automation and
technologies. But even though these machines rely largely on technology, they
still require human capacity and more so the pilots.Tasks such as data entry and retrieval into
the system mostly require human beings. The advantages of advances in cockpit
designs fall both to the pilots and to the passengers. The passenger gets more
comfortable during the flight because he/she is at least 98% sure of safe
arrive. The pilots enjoy improved flight control and a reduction in
weather-related complications. The cockpit systems used currently have
diagnostic assistance systems and system monitoring displays which support and
enhance the performance of the pilots and the staff involved in craft
maintenance, However, the systems still pose a
threat when faced with complex failure events therefore, the cockpit
designers still need to identify the systems that have better analysis and
control routines. Sometimes the crew gets hindered by information over swamp
when diagnosing a problem, thus the need for systems that are simpler to
interpret. Automation and technological advancements relieve pilots from tasks
that would be considered none rewarding and repeated and those interpretations
that are not fitted for human beings. Good cockpit designs reduce workloads for
the pilots and therefore giving them time to follow up the necessary human cockpit

Pilots act as a crucial part of air travel, However, as aircraft
automation increases, the roles of pilots and maintenance team changes to
managing and maintaining more than flying. For the managing and maintenance
role to be effective, the pilots need to have an awareness of what is happening
in the flight deck and how the aircraft is behaving in the different airspaces
and weather conditions, that is situational awareness (Salas, Prince, Baker
& Shrestha, 2017).

One way of ensuring that human performance in the cockpit is
improved in all operational conditions and maximized involves creating a
cockpit that represents better situational awareness. The future cockpit
designs look to the reduction of crew workload and better assessment of situations.
One challenge that has posed threats to pilots and the maintenance crew for a
long time involves a large number of switches and buttons for control and
displays and instrumentals for indications. In the conventional cockpit design,
these controls and indicators not integrated, therefore; the pilot has to
divide his/her attention among the vast independent variables (LI, Yu, Greaves
& Braithwaite, 2015).For example,
when a pilot needs to change the speed of the plane, he/she must access the
control button in one area of the cockpit and still check the speed indicators
on another side.The pilot then has to
divide the attention between the indicators, controls, tasks and the individual
needs of the passengers.

Leading avionic manufacturers have proposed a number of new
cockpit designs, and many of these concepts make suggestions about replacing
the old designs with multiple touchscreen displays (Wang Wang & Chen,
2081). The current touchscreen concepts allow for proper interaction between
humans and the systems as they pilots access a variety of information within an
area of the cockpit. Instead of having a spread out a number of controls, the
pilots use a single seamless, integrated system of tools located in one place.
One of the touchscreen designs invented can be placed on a table in front of
the pilots whereby they can easily access. The setup allows the flight deck
crew to fly a plane comfortably even in situations with mild turbulence.

Some of the benefits accruing from the advanced designs can be
seen as a necessity and more so if the pilots get involved in the process of
creating these designs. The crew faces challenges on a day to day basis.
Therefore, they are best positioned to identify where adjustments should be
made and what should be left as it is.If a company creates a system without involving the pilots and the
people who will use it, the company may have a hard time convincing people of
the benefits of the system. Experienced pilots would be harder to convince
because they know the conventional way in and out.

Avionic companies have taken the future of cockpits to a new level
as they add gesture and voice recognition technology to automated touchscreen
technology. The use of voice and gesture recognition in the cockpit presents a
number of benefits; for instance, the
pilot will have more time to keep their heads up, looking at the situation
around and outside. They do not have to look around for controls and indicators
placed all over the cockpit. Therefore,
they can concentrate on other tasks. Better still, the voice recognition
ability enhances the touchscreen design such that, a pilot does not have to
navigate through an extensive list of menus on the screen because he/she can
verbally command the system.

In the near future, companies will implement these advancements of
a large extent, and the cockpit will be more comfortable to operate. A number
of laws should be followed as companies produce cockpits that enhance the
cockpit functionality (Baldwin, 2017).These technological developments will enhance the effectiveness of the
human aspect of the cockpit. The systems might present a challenge in terms of
cost and training, but the benefits outweigh the costs. The advantages that
will accrue from cockpit design advancements will include, reduced manual work
for the pilot, therefore, less fatigue. Second, the cockpit crew will get
relief from small human errors that cause catastrophic losses primarily in the
case of conventional cockpits. Third, the new cockpits will reduce the costs and
space required for a sufficient human-plane interface. For instance, a single
touchscreen in place of the current extensive controls and indicators would
reduce the space needed and the cost of diagnosing and maintaining the
conventional model. Smaller interfaces result in precision as the pilots engage
in routine tasks, therefore, fewer mishaps and increased productivity.

The new cockpits might have both positive and negative impacts on
the pilots. For instance, the experienced pilots who have served in the planes
for long might see these advancements as unnecessary and as a waste of money.
They have already captured the routine of conventional cockpits, therefore;
they face little to no challenges. However, some of the older pilots and the
future ones who have used technology such as touchscreens on their phones might
prefer the new models of cockpits as they relate well with them. The best
option in handling the pilot that will most likely rebel against the new
designs is to involve them in the design process, ask for their contributions
and make them feel comfortable with the advancements.

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